Niosomes - Smart capsules

Niosomes - Smart capsules
The most suggestible way of medication that we follow at present is the allopathic system for its instant results. Contemporary drugs that we use in the allopathic system give such rapid results; however, it also shows some adverse effects to the human body as a result of its high dosage. A factor called bioavailability makes it essential for administering a large amount of drug. Only about 2-3% of drugs that we intake reach the target site and the rest get exposed to the surrounding environment which causes the ill effects. These are rectified by the drugs loaded into capsules primarily. However, these capsules are less potent thus highly stable and target-specific drug carrier is formulated to obtain more effective results. Smart capsules could reduce the adverse effects caused by the contemporary method. These smart capsules are called as vesicles; among all the other vesicles, niosomes stand out as the best drug carrier in oral administration.

Niosomes are structurally equivalent to vesicles which have an aqueous core and a lipid membrane surrounding them. This structural property grants the facility to carry both water based and lipid based drugs. The amount of drug needed at the target is alone encapsulated using these vesicles instead of administering 10 times more drug. Thus no excess amount of drug which is exposed to the surrounding in the current system is avoided by this novel method of drug delivery. This type of drug entrapment gives us the advantage to increase the bioavailability of the drug.

On the other hand, these vesicles are also capable of providing a controlled release of drugs. By altering the dosage of the components used for making niosomes, they can yield the desired release of drug from the vesicle. The sustained release of the drug is more efficient enough than the present release systems. These carriers are distributed with ligands over their surface which makes them target-specific. The ligands are prepared based on the target site where the drug needed to be delivered. The ligand is compatible with the cell receptors of the target site and a bond will be formed between them which will make the niosomes release the drug. Pyrazinamide drug for treating tuberculosis has been encapsulated into niosomes successfully by Mohammed Shafik El-Ridy et al. and the results have shown increased efficiency after encapsulation.

Above all important properties of the niosomes, the prime important fact is that these are completely biodegradable, biologically inert, inexpensive, can be stored over a long period of time, non-toxic and non-immunogenic.
How to cite this article:
Hariprasath R. Niosomes - Smart capsules. BioLim O-Media. 28 July, 2016. 4(7).
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